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Essay寫作結構要點

時間:2020-04-29 16:30來源:www.600584.tw 作者:Hpan317 點擊:
人們把essay稱作話題作文和論文的統稱,在國外,人們將話題作文和論文統稱essay,Essay可以看做是說明文,也可以是議論文??傮w來說就是引用別的事物來證明某個觀點。Essay的套路也是很深。
Essay寫作結構要點
 
我們稱Essay為主題寫作和論文的總稱,在國外,人們都將主題寫作和論文稱為Essay。 綜上所述,這是通過引用其他對象來證明一種觀點,而寫Essay要注意的結構問題是非常重要的,因此今天讓我們對其進行挖掘。

Essay寫作結構要點

Essay的結構:

1)Introduction
Introduction包括:general statements和thesis statement (thesis statement的定義是:a kind of mini-outline for the paper)。這個一般叫introductory paragraph,通常是為了告訴讀者what the essay is about。本部分的最后一句還必須包含一個過渡的“鉤子hook”,它將讀者移動到文章正文的第一段。也就是要過渡得好。
 
Example
Women employees right are not effectively protected. Under these circumstances, labor law may be a good way to save woman from a bad job situation.thesis statement
The essay will explain in detail the women sexual harassment from the phenomenon of women employees’ condition in work place and the labor law about female sexual harassment in western Europe. In addition, it will also describe the wage inequality between male and female workers. Furthermore, the phenomenon, the effects and the law about maternity leave in western Europe all will be referred precisely. (文章內容構成)
In the UK, 90 percent of female workers had suffered sexual harassment (Bajema & Timmerman 1998). hook
 
2)Body
??一般來說,essay的body paragraph(正文段)寫作結構如下: 
1)  Topic Sentence:主題句(一句話闡明本段的論點) 
2)  Assertion statements:主張句(幾句話闡述你的論點) 
3)  example(s):舉例(列舉一些事實) 
4)  Explanation:解釋(說明以上事實為什么能支撐你的論點) 
5)  Significance:意義(總結說明為什么本段論點能論證全文的主題) 
 
也可以更簡單地分為三個部分,在美國這被稱為“漢堡包結構”: 
1)  Topic Sentence:主題句 
2)  Supporting Evidence:證據 
3)  Conclusion Sentence:總結句
 
Example
In western Europe, about 66% female employees have admitted that they had been harassed by their superiors (Timmerman et al. 1998). Assertion statements
Cela (2015) explain that sexual harassment in the workplace includes one-time harassment and multiple sexual harassment. Women are more likely to be harassed.example+ Explanation
If the offender is the manager of a female victim, the offender may use their right to threaten them by controlling the performance evaluation and work incentives of the female staff.Significance
 
1、Topic Sentence主題句的寫作要點
 
首先,注意主題句應該是一個觀點,而不是事實。比如:
 
事實:Plagiarizing is to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own.
 
觀點:People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.
 
其次,主題句應該是一個觀點,而不能僅僅包含一個話題。比如:
 
只包含話題:Today I'm going to discuss the benefits of gardening.
 
包含觀點:Gardening gives us pleasure and is very effective to our minds.
 
最后,你的觀點不能是泛泛的,而應該是確切的。
 
模糊:The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.
 
確切:Sherman's destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.
 
ExampleAccording to ILO (1997), prevention can solve female sexual harassment in workplace, and law-making is the most effective way to avoid this problem.

 
Essay寫作結構要點

2、如何引述證據
 
在列舉證據時,首先我們應當保證所有的論據都是與主題相關的。
 
證據可能包括以下類型:
 
事實(Facts)
 
公開發表的觀點(Published opinions)
 
書刊網站等媒體上的調查研究(Research from books, journal articles, websites, etc.)
 
公開的案例(Published case studies)
 
研究數據(Research data)
 
引用證據有三種方法:
 
引用(Quoting):逐字逐句地復制原信息
 
復述(Paraphrasing):按自己的語言重新組織
 
概括(Summarising):更簡潔的語言概括原信息 ....
 
但無論采用哪種方法,我們都需要注意:一、讓證據自然地穿插在文中;二、注明來源。
 
Example
(1998) showed that 89% of Norwegian women had suffered sexual harassment during work. More than half of the women had suffered sexual harassment by superior or colleague have mentioned already. Therefore, the employment of women may quit their job and may claim for damages because of sexual harassment.
 
Essay寫作結構要點

3)Conclusion

總結也是要簡潔,其實怎么寫結束語,也是有一定技巧的。Conclusion是為了總結你的觀點,并建議你的結論可以在更大的意義上的思考。包括:restament or summary of the main points;final comment。
詳細點來講,要點有:
1、提及introductory paragraph
2、 回應thesis statement, 可以用原始語句修改下,但是不要復制粘貼原始語句。
3、總結正文Body中的要點。
 
Example

To sum up, in western Europe, the situation of the female sexual harassment in workplace is not optimistic. In addition, the gender wage gap is also great. Furthermore, many female workers do not have paid maternity leave and some women employees lose their job during pregnancy. However, almost all the western European countries are trying to solve this problem by establishing workforce regulation.(提及introductory paragraph)
 
 There is no doubt that labor law can prevent female sexual harassment during working to some extent, reduce the wage gap between male and female, and force employers to offer maternity leave and paid maternity leave to staff who is pregnant. In this case, although the law does not completely solve these problems, it is absolutely useful for female workers. These issues have been clearly defined in the labor law in most Western European countries. (回應thesis statement)
 
As a result, defining female sexual harassment in workplace, gender wage gap and maternity leave specifically and formulating the corresponding punishment for different situations may have a positive effect on these problems.(總結正文Body中的要點)

4)References
正確引用作品原文或專家、學者的論述是寫好英語論文的重要環節;既要注意引述與論文的有機統一,即其邏輯性,又要注意引述格式 (即英語論文參考文獻)的規范性。引述別人的觀點,可以直接引用,也可以間接引用。無論采用何種方式,論文作者必須注明所引文字的作者和出處。

 





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